Hypothyroidism can be induced by many factors, external and internal. For many years I have believed some
cases of hypothyroidism to be health- positive responses to ridiculous life situations. The body’s refusal to
devote energy to health-negative activities may be forcing an involuntary inability to cope with life’s demands.
Intervention would then be an insult to body wisdom. Other cases, however, seemed to be caused by external
factors, rather than glandular hypothyroidism. Some patients diagnosed as hypothyroid from superficial clinical
observations were actually suffering from chronic carbon monoxide poisoning from unvented gas flames at
home and/or leaky automobile exhaust systems, especially in the American Northeast. Others were chronically
sleep-deprived. Correction of the non-thyroid problems seemed to resolve the symptoms thought to indicate
I try to encourage everyone to lead a thyrosupportive lifestyle:
1. Adequate dietary iodine: iodine is essential for T4 and T3 and hence all vertebrate life. No land plants seem
to require iodine and few beyond the seashore have more than tiny amounts. All of the animals we regularly eat
have significant amounts of iodine, especially red-blooded animals and seafood. All seaweeds are rich in iodine.
Iodized salt is a reliable dietary iodine source. The intense fatigue experienced by some vegans (iodine occurs in
both eggs and dairy) may be iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (check for goiter). Dairy products contain iodine
(see above); baked goods may. Commercial sea salt is not an adequate source of dietary iodine. Salted snacks
are usually not salted with iodized salt for reasons of economy.
2. Reduce or eliminate exposure to any and all iodine displacers. The other halogens in various forms can
displace or interfere with iodine metabolism. These are Fluorine (toothpaste, water supplies), Chlorine (water
supplies and cleaning agents), and Bromine (industrial stack emissions, pesticides in food and spas,
preservatives and conditioners). Although these agents may not actually cause hypothyroidism, they add an
unexpected burden to thyroid metabolism; most of them did not occur naturally in the thyroid gland’s
developmental past, precluding protective mechanisms against them.
3. Reduce or eliminate thyrosuppressive and thyrodisruptive foods such as raw leafy brassicas and soy products.
4. Reduce or eliminate thyrodisruptive medications: aspirin, HRT, warfarin and other anticlotting drugs, many
antidepressants, and steroids, particularly cortisone and prednisone.
5. Thyroxine, T4, is converted to T3 by several selenodiodinases (1). Selenium deficiency may result in
hypothyroid symptoms. Ensure adequate dietary selenium. Recent work suggests that selenium supplementation
may control or modulate autoimmune thyroid disease (5). No plants seem to require selenium although they do
extract it from soils. Avoid excess selenium. Excess selenium seems to quench itself in enzymes. Mercury,
cadmium and perhaps other heavy metals may quench selenium in the selenodiodinases. Check for metal
poisoning in cases where T4 production is okay but T3 levels are low with accompanying symptoms of
hypothyroidism. Reduce or eliminate home and workplace exposure to mercury and cadmium.
6. If blood thyroid hormone levels are within or near normal ranges but symptoms indicate hypothyroidism,
suspect incomplete body mineralization. T4 and T3 are middle-management directive molecules, carrying
orders. Downstream enzymes need to do the work to actualize thyroid hormone-mediated orders. Most of those
enzymes require metallic cations. Deficiencies of one or more enzymatic cations could manifest as hypothyroid
symptoms. Use a mineral supplement or high-mineral powdered kelp (not tablets), added to regular food as a
salt replacement. Also, improve diet to include mostly organic whole foods and seaweeds.
7. Natural sources of thyroid hormone:
a. Fucus contains di-iodotyrosine (DIT), the basic building block of T4 (two DIT are condensed in an
esterification reaction by thyroid peroxidase in thyroid follicles to produce T4) (3,6). If blood thyroid hormone
levels are low and TSH is modestly elevated (5.0-10.0) consider natural supplementation with powdered Fucus
spp. seaweed, (bladderwrack). Take up to 5grams/day, one hour before a regular meal. Positive results may
develop within several days or weeks. Some patients with functioning thyroid glands on low dosages of thyroid
hormone medication have successfully used Fucus seaweed to either replace or wean themselves from T4
medications. In one patient with 17-yr Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Fucus was used for two years to successfully
replace T4 medication with both a lowering of TSH after 2-3 months and a reduction in thyroid gland swelling.
CAUTION!! Fucus seaweed powder cannot replace T4 medication taken by those patients who have had a
complete thyroidectomy or radiation ablation of their thyroid gland. DIT is weakly active as a thyroid hormone
but cannot replace T4 or T3. This has been attempted several times with consequent severe hypothyroid
symptoms before corrected with T4/T3 administration.
b. Also, since all red meat is red because of blood, which contains globulin-bound thyroid hormones
(and other hormones), I urge marginal hypothyroid patients to increase their consumption of bloody red meats,
raw or as rare as possible. (A short thought on supplementation: as omnivores and meat-eaters, we have a
history of ingesting animals and their respective hormones; many of those hormones are the same as our own,
particularly the thyroid hormones in mammals. Cooking is a relatively recent practice for hominids such as
ourselves. I suggest that we developed as a species expecting at least some external sourcing of most of our
blood-circulating hormones. De facto supplementation was occurring in our ancestor’s diets. Our endocrine
glands may have developed over time expecting and even needing extrinsic hormone supplementation. Growl.)
c. A recent Japanese publication reports the detection of physiologically significant amounts of
THYROXINE (T4) and LIOTHYRONINE (T3), as well as DIT and MIT in Laminaria sp. (Kombu) and
Sargassum sp. (Sargasso Weed) (7). This has enormous implications regarding both dietary caution (for Kombu
eaters) and for hypothyroidism treatments by healers. All seaweed health and nutrition studies using either
Laminaria or Sargassum will need to be re-evaluated for the effects of probable cryptic T4 and T3
supplementation. Those who have been eating lots of Kombu regularly might wish to stop for 60-90 days and
see if they become clinically hypothyroid. I strongly believe that many of the health benefits attributed to
Kombu and other brown seaweeds are probably due to cryptic thyroid hormone supplementation. I refer to the
lowering of arterial blood pressure, reducing blood triglyceride levels, promoting weight loss, resolution of skin
problems, mood enhancement, etc. (7).
There seem to be no studies using either Kombu or Sargasso Weed to specifically treat any thyroid dysfunction.
If the T4 and T3 in brown seaweeds is available from either eating dried uncooked powder or seaweed pieces,
or eating lightly cooked seaweed as in Miso broth or fast stir fry, we may finally have a natural, non-animal
source of actual thyroid hormones. Dosages and adverse signs will need to be established.
I recommend diagnosed low thyroid patients be given 2-5 grams of powdered Laminaria seaweed daily with
close monitoring. The most probable first symptoms will be nervousness, sleep disruption, increased heart rate,
heat intolerance, irritability.
This discovery of T4 and T3 in brown seaweeds supports my contention that we are an externally-sourced
hormone-supplement-dependent species, whose historical uncooked omnivorous diet provided dietary sources
of most mammalian hormones and that the lack of these hormones in our diets has made us less healthy,
endocrine-deprived, and especially susceptible to absorbing toxic hormonal mimics.
8. In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, immune modulation is suggested. The idea is to mitigate if not reverse the
immune management decision to attack and possibly destroy the thyroid gland. I recommend the immunemodulating
botanicals, particularly Ganoderma mushroom broth and tinctures of Ganoderma and
9. Eliminate unnecessary X-rays to head and chest (dental, TB, CAT-scans, mammograms etc.)
10. Reduce exposure to potential thyroid hormone mimetics and confounders such as PCBs; polychlorinated
biphenols resemble T4 and T3, which are biphenols, with their respective two aromatic rings. Especially try to
reduce exposure to these and related substances for pregnant and nursing mothers and their young children.
Many of the cryptic thyroid disruptions which act on the unborn and neonates may not manifest until primary
years as psychiatric disturbances or as development disruption during puberty. (3)
11. There is an especially vicious class of endocrine disrupters that have become ubiquitous in our human
environment. These substances have been used to improve our lives. They are: flame retardants, resorcinolbased
glues, and MBTE gasoline additive s used to boost octane after tetra-ethyl lead was banned.
The flame retardants, Poly-bromated di-ethyl ethers, PBDE’s, were mandated for children’s pajamas, bedding,
stuffed toys, etc.; they are also in motel/hotel bedding, curtains, carpeting (all wall-to-wall), and upholstered
furniture. They are present in all water, soil, and air. They are especially concentrated in mammalian milk, in
particular human mothers’ milk. They are thyrodisruptive and pass transdermally from clothing into infants and
children. It is the regular 8-12 hour constant contact with a child’s epidermis, which allows the unavoidable
slow accumulation of PBDE’s. They were mandated to stop fire deaths resulting from cigarette and other
smokers setting fire to bedding after falling asleep with lighted smoking materials in hand. So, we are all
secondarily poisoned by smoke even though we are miles from any known smoker. Not only does second-hand
smoke kill, second hand protection from smokers is disrupting all of us.
Resorcinol and Dihydroxybenzene has been used therapeutically as an alleged starting molecule for catechols.
Industrially, it is used in the production of Rayon and Nylon, and the superb resorcinol/formaldehyde glues,
particularly in plywood, chipboard, and sawdust composites for fake wood furniture. As these products are
abraded, scuffed, cut, or broken, tiny amounts or resorcinol polymer dust particles are released into our living
spaces and are inhaled, where they rest on mucous membrane surfaces where nano amounts are continually
absorbed and may be thyrodisruptive. The EPA hearings on resorcinol were especially opaque and seemingly
non-conclusive, in part, I suspect, because of the huge worldwide human exposure to resorcinol polymer
fragments. The effects of resorcinol on the human thyroid are still being investigated. I believe these resorcinolsourced
particles may be a significant factor in the increasing thyroid epidemic, particularly in the countries
where the most resorcinol has been used. Gasoline additives are also being breathed by all of us. Many are
1. Bianco, A.C. Et Al. 2002. Biochemistry, Cellular Molecular Biology, and, Physiological Roles of the
Iodothyronine Selenodeiodinases. Endocrine Reviews 23: 38-89
2. Budd, M. 2000. Why Am I So Tired? (Is Your Thyroid Making You Ill?)
3. Colburn, T. 2004. Neurodevelopment and endocrine disruption. Environmental Health Perspectives.112, 944-
949 3.A. Koppe, J. G. Are maternal antibodies generated by PCBs the missing link to impaired development of
the brain? Ibid. 112:A682
4. Drum, R.W. 2000. Botanicals for Thyroid Function and Dysfunction: www.partnereartheducation.com
5. Gartner, R. et al. 2002 Selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis decreases thyroid
peroxidase antibodies concentrations. Jour. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 87: 1687-1691
6. Greenspan, F>S> and Strewler, F>J> 1997. Basic and Clinical Endocrinology
7. Kazutosi, Nisizawa. 2002. Seaweeds Kaiso: Bountiful Harvest From the Seas. Sustenance for Health and
8. Weiss, R. 1960(1996). Herbal Medicine (English translation)
9. Wichtl, M. and Bisset, H>G> 1994. Herbal Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
Ryan Drum, PhD, AHG, has a BS in Chemical Technology and a PhD in Botany (Phycology) from Iowa
State University. While a NATO Scholar, he did postdoctoral studies on Cell Biology using the Electron
Microscope and Microcine at the Universities of Bonn, Germany and Leeds, England. For 10 years Dr.
Drum taught Botany and related subjects at Universities (UMASS/Amherst, UCLA, WWU). He studied
Herbal Medicine with Ella Birzneck, founder of Dominion Herbal College in British Columbia for 12
years, and taught at their summer seminars for 25 years. He has been an adjunct faculty at Bastyr
University since 1984, and he lectures at major herbal conferences and herbal schools. He specializes in
Seaweed Therapies, Thyroid issues, and Men's Health. Dr. Drum is the author of over 30 scientific papers
in peer-reviewed journals, the author of Electron Microscopy of Diatom Cells 1966, Springer Verlag, a
100-Plate Atlas, in print for 20 years, and a contributing author of two chapters in Planting the Future
(Gladstar and Hirsch 2001) and a chapter in Fundamentals of Naturopathic Endocrinology, M.
Friedman 2005. The proud father of three wonderful children and two fantastic grandchildren, he lives
in a rustic little hilltop cabin he built 30 years ago on a remote island, off the grid, without indoor
plumbing or refrigeration. Dr. Drum believes in true patient autonomy: the freedom and right to choose
one's caregivers, independent of their official certification. You can contact Ryan at his website